History

Defkalion History

In Greek mythology, Deucalion Greek: Δευκαλίων was the Hesione, or Pronoia. The anger of Zeus was ignited by the hubris of the Pelasgians, so he decide to put an end to the Iron Age.

Lycaon, the king of Arcadia, had sacrificed a boy to Zeus, who was appalled by this savage offering. Zeus unleashed a surge, so that the rivers ran in torrents and the sea flooded the coastal plain, engulfed the foothills with spray, and washed everything clean. Deucalion, with the aid of his father Prometheus, was saved from this surge by building a chest to survive the flood with his wife, Pyrrha.

The fullest accounts are provided in Ovid’s Metamorphoses (8 AD) and in the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus. Deucalion, who reigned over the region of Phthia, had been forewarned of the flood by his father, Prometheus. Deucalion was to build a chest and provision it carefully so that when the waters receded after nine days, he and his wife Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus, were the one surviving pair of humans. Their chest touched solid ground on Mount Parnassus or Mount Etna in Sicily or Mount Athos in Chalkidiki or Mount Othrys in Thessaly.

Once the flood was over and the couple had given thanks to Zeus, Deucalion consulted an oracle of Themis about how to repopulate the earth. He was told to cover your head and throw the bones of your mother behind your shoulder.

Deucalion and Pyrrha understood that “mother” is Gaia, the mother of all living things, and the “bones” to be rocks. They threw the rocks behind their shoulders and the stones formed people. Pyrrha’s became women; Deucalion’s became men, Deucalion and Pyrrha had at least two children, Hellen and Protogenea, and possibly a third, Amphictyon. Their children as apparently named in one of the oldest texts, Catalogue of Women, include daughters Pandora and Thyia, and at least one son, Hellen. Their descendants were said to have dwelt in Thessaly.

Plutarch mentions a legend that Deucalion and Pyrrha had settled in Dodona, Epirus; while Strabo asserts that they lived at Cynus, and that her grave is still to be found there, while his may be seen at Athens; he also mentions a pair of Aegean islands named after the couple.

For some time during the Middle Ages, many European Christian scholars continued to accept Greek mythical history at face value, thus asserting that Deucalion’s flood was a regional flood. On the basis of the archaeological stele known as the Parian Chronicle, Deucalion’s Flood was usually fixed as occurring sometime around 1528 BC.

The descendants of Deucalion and Pyrrha are below:

Hellen, Amphictyon, Orestheus, Protogeneia, Pandora II and Thyia are their children. Aeolus, Aethlius, Dorus,